Category Archives: Storm Damage

JenREES 7-19-20

Crop Update: The smell of pollen is in the air! Did you know each tassel contains around 6000 pollen-producing anthers? Two good articles from Dr. Bob Nielsen, Purdue University at https://go.unl.edu/x5tv.

How does heat impact pollination? Dr. Tom Hoegemeyer, former UNL Professor of Practice, shared that high humidity, without a drop in humidity during the day, can delay pollination or prevent pollen from leaving anther sacs. While heat over 95°F depresses pollen production, one day of 95-98°F has no or little yield impact when soil moisture is sufficient. After 4 consecutive days, there can be a 1% loss in yield for each day above that temperature. Greater yield loss occurs after the fifth or sixth day. Thankfully we’re not in a high heat pattern during this critical time of pollination!

My concerns regarding pollination: bent ear leaves covering silks in wind-damaged fields. Seeing a great deal of this. Also seeing silks continuing to elongate and grow through broken mid-ribs to increase exposure to pollen. Will continue to observe impacts.

Preliminary storm prediction center weather data showed a total of 93 wind, 11 hail, and 13 tornado damage reports on July 8th in Nebraska. Univ. of Wisconsin found lodged plants had yield reductions of 2-6% (V10-12 stage), 5-15% (V13-15 stage), and 12-31% (V17 and after stages). For greensnapped plants (below ear), Iowa State found in the worst case situation, yield reduction may range up to a 1:1 percent broken:yield loss. It’s possible these losses will be as low as 1:0.73 or even 1:0.50. We have an article in this week’s CropWatch (https://go.unl.edu/cwy2) with more detailed information. Recovery pics also at https://jenreesources.com.

Southern Rust was confirmed at low incidence and severity in Fillmore, Nuckolls, and Jefferson county fields this past week (probable for Thayer). Received questions on fungicide applications. In conversations, it seems like there’s fear of making the wrong decision and ultimately pressure to apply them. I realize economically it’s easier to justify adding a fungicide with insecticide when insect thresholds are met to save application costs. Most fungicide studies focus on VT applications; however, yield increases with automatic VT applications aren’t consistently proven in Nebraska.

In fact, in 2008-2009, a UNL fungicide timing trial was conducted near Clay Center on 2 hybrids (GLS ratings ‘fair’ and ‘(very) good’) with a high clearance applicator. Timing over the two years included: Tassel, Milk, Dough, 25%, 33%, 50%, and 100% Dent comparing the fungicides Headline, Headline AMP, Quilt and Stratego YLD.

  • 2008: No yield difference on GLS hybrids rated ‘good’ at any of the timings (Tassel, Milk, 33% and 100% Dent) nor the check when Headline or Stratego YLD were applied. For the ‘fair’ hybrid, no yield difference for any application timing nor the check for the April 30th planting except for Headline applied at milk stage (increased yield). Low gray leaf spot pressure.
  • 2009: No yield difference on GLS hybrids rated ‘very good’ or ‘fair’ nor the check on any timings (Tassel, Milk, and Dough) using Headline, Headline AMP, or Quilt. Moderate gray leaf spot disease pressure.

Thus I’ve recommended waiting till disease pressure warrants the application (have personally recommended apps as late as hard dough in previous years). Hybrids vary in disease susceptibility (thus response to fungicide application). The main ‘plant health’ benefit observed in Nebraska when disease pressure was low (ex. 2012) was stalk strength and that may be something to consider again in this lower disease year. Regarding any improved water use efficiency for drought-stressed plants, the peer-reviewed research published on this was in 2007. The researchers found slightly increased efficiency in well-watered plants, but it was reduced in water-stressed plants. They suggested fungicide use in water-stressed plants could potentially negatively influence water use efficiency and photosynthesis.


 

Same area of a York County Field taken morning of July 9th (left photo) and morning of July 13th (right photo). Grateful to see how plants are re-orienting themselves in many impacted lodged fields!

Leaned plants trying to upright themselves

Plants re-orienting themselves by ‘pushing’ and establishing more brace roots on the leeward (leaned side) helping roots reconnect with soil on the windward side. Notice the additional brace root development within the circled area of this photo.

Plants reorienting themselves at each node at various angles and bends

Plants reorienting themselves at each node at various angles and bends. Nodes become thicker to aid in reorientation.

Splitting open of thickened node

Splitting open of thickened node. Additional cell division and/or elongation occurring at these nodes appears to help ‘push’ the stalk upward (geotrophic response).

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Consistently seeing bent ear leaves covering silks in wind-damaged fields. Will have to watch any impacts to pollination.

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Also seeing how either the ear or silks are working their way through tears in leaves or silks elongating to the side of the plant to try to pollinate.

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Severely greensnapped field of later-planted corn.

Seeing some new growth on some greensnapped plants. Dissecting the growth revealed baby corn ears (they won’t amount to anything). Just shows the resiliency in plants regarding how they’re created to survive and reproduce. I never cease to be amazed by their Creator!

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Seeing this very minor. Ear trapped within thickened husk/stalk tissue so forcing itself through side of plant. Silks visible first.

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Opened this one to see curving of ear and some potential pinching occurring where ear was trapped above where it was forcing out of husk. Will be interesting to see any pollination and ear development impacts on plants like this.

JenREES 7-12-20

Wind-damaged Corn: The evening/early morning hours of July 8-9 caused quite a bit of IMG_20200709_105000damage to corn fields for some of you reading this. It’s always hard to see crop damage. For field corn, it came at a critical time prior to pollination. The severity and amount of recovery for every field situation will vary depending on the soil moisture at time of the wind, root mass structure, hybrid planted, severity of leaning/bent/snapped plants, and growth stage of the plants. It will also depend on where the bending and snapping of those plants occurred. ‘Recovery’ encompasses the plants righting themselves, re-establishing roots, and re-orienting leaves as they have the ability to bend and grow up towards the sunlight in areas of the plant where plant tissues were not yet lignified (hardened). We know hybrids have been bred to better withstand greensnap. We know that plants that are leaning due to root lodging may have better ability to upright themselves (and have seen this in some fields since the storm). We also know that it is harder for plants near tasseling to upright themselves compared to plants at earlier vegetative stages.

What to expect? It really depends on the conditions outlined above. We all will learn a lot and I encourage us to share what we are observing. For fields very close to tassel with severe bending near ears, we may see pollination, possibly even ear formation issues. There may be fields that were leaning and will have minimal impacts after uprighting themselves. The main research I can find regarding corn lodging yield impacts comes from the University of Wisconsin in 1988. In the study, they manually lodged corn at various growth stages over 2 years to determine yield impacts. Corn lodged at V10-V12 resulted in a yield reduction of 2-6%. Corn lodged at V13-15 resulted in a yield reduction of 5-15%. Corn lodged after V17 resulted in a 12-31% yield reduction.

What to do? Recommend waiting, observing, call your crop insurance adjuster. Don’t apply products right now. Economically, we need to see how each field recovers before putting more into the crop. Plants are already stressed so give them time to try to recover. A respected agronomist shared another point with me-that adding heavy amounts of water right now can add weight onto the plants and keep them sticking together when they’re trying to separate. For those who were planning on fertigation, I’ve seen soil sample results and heard from several people that we’re seeing increased mineralization this year in fields due to the heat. It may be worth a tissue and/or soil test to see if you really need additional nitrogen (final application at brown silk). Regarding fungicides, my recommendation prior to the storm was to wait till at least brown silk (or after) due to low disease pressure, uneven growth stages in fields, waiting for southern rust, and economics; I stand by that after this storm. Fungicides can’t help much with the plant stress being experienced.

Spidermites have been found in low levels in corn, but in some cases, fairly high levels in soybean. Higher levels have been observed in stressed fields (due to off-target herbicide damage and/or beans stressed due to drought). If you’re noticing pockets in fields that appear to be yellow/brown/dying and spreading, check the top side of the leaf for stippling (yellow needle-like pin-pricks) and undersides for webbing and mites. Seeing them in non-stressed beans at low levels as well. Check out this information from Illinois for guidelines on when and how to control: http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=5080.spidemite tweet

Gardening Resources: Nebraska Extension is hosting a series of 12 virtual learning sessions for home gardeners to discuss timely issues around vegetable gardening and trees. Each session will include a short (15-20 minute) presentation on the specified topic and opportunities for participants to chat about their issues and “ask the expert”. Sessions will be each Tuesday through September at 7 p.m. CST. Participants can register via go.unl.edu/grobigredvirtual – you can register for all the sessions you’re interested in at one time. You can also view the series via this Facebook post: https://www.facebook.com/events/1195072680839800.

grobigred series

JenREES 6-14-20

Storm damage resources: Have had a number of calls throughout the State this week

Hail damage to soybean at the V2 stage

Soybean recovering from hail damage.

from those who have experienced hail, flooding, and/or wind damage. The warmer temperatures were helpful for regenerating plant growth after hail; however, they’re not helpful for those who had heavy rains and flooding that didn’t recede. I shared this last week too but here’s a Hail Damage Assessment resource with many videos: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/hail-know/assess-my-damage. For flooding, corn plants prior to V6 can survive under water for 2-4 days if temperatures do not exceed 77°F. From V7-V10, plants can survive 7-10 days if temperatures do not exceed 86°F. For soybeans, yield losses are minimal if flooding lasts less than 48 hours. If flooded for 4-5 days, fewer nodes develop and plants will be shorter. If flooded for 6+ days, possible stand and yield loss. The longer it takes a field to dry out, the more yield loss that may occur. For soybeans at flowering, there’s potential for yield loss, especially on poorly drained soils.

As we deal with corn leaf loss due to natural sloughing off, early frost, and recent hail

and wind damage, it can make corn development staging tricky for post- pesticide applications. The reason I keep emphasizing development stages is because I’ve been called out to many ear formation concerns the past several years. No one intends for these things to happen! These are opportunities for all of us to learn. In all cases, mis-diagnosis of development stage occurred prior to the pesticide application (whether herbicide, insecticide and/or fungicide). The use of non-ionic surfactant (NIS) in the tank from V10-VT resulted in the ear formation issues in addition to increased surfactant load from multiple products in the tank mix. My hope in emphasizing corn development staging this year is to hopefully reduce the incidence of ear abnormalities that occur from post- pesticide applications. I put together the following video to hopefully help: https://twitter.com/jenreesources/status/1272370173853470720?s=20.

Gardening 101 resources: A team within Extension pulled together all the vegetable gardening resources to create a one-stop place for vegetable gardening. This resource, housed on the backyard farmer website, is a place for beginning gardeners and experienced ones. Check it out at https://go.unl.edu/veggies101!  

Sunscald/scorch on green beans: This past week I received a few pictures of green beans that had large brown ‘burnt looking’ areas. This is caused by sunscald. The sun and wind has been intense. Seek to evenly water and avoid watering the foliage.

Trees: Lots of tree questions past few weeks. If leaves are pre-maturely turning yellow and dropping, it’s most likely due to fungal disease. This is mostly happening since the 3” rain over Memorial Day. All the trees I’ve looked at are already starting to develop new leaves. Weed whackers cause more injury to trees that one realizes, so be very careful using them around trees, or put mulch around them to reduce weeds. Remove ‘mulch volcanoes’ around trees as the mulch against the trunk can cause rot. Mulch should not be piled against the trunk. Seek to make clean and proper pruning cuts for all the storm damage that has occurred to trees. For those who’ve experienced bark removal from lightning strikes or winter cracking, don’t paint anything over the wound and don’t fertilize or do anything to the tree. Allow the tree to seek to heal on its own. It’s amazing what trees can overcome! Winter and spring dessication injury may be causing evergreens (cedars, junipers, yews, and arborvitae) to suddenly turning brown. Kelly Feehan, Extension Educator shares, “During warmer than average temperatures in February and March, moisture was lost from green needles and could not be replaced from frozen or cold soils. This was followed by a dry spring; and then above average temperatures and extreme winds. These conditions increase the rate of transpiration and increased moisture loss from needles. If the moisture is not replaced quickly, tissues dessicate and eventually die. Evergreens growing in open exposed sites, near pavement or light colored houses, and those planted in the last three to five years are most susceptible. Other than using organic mulch and keeping soil moist, there is not much to do. Once an evergreen or a branch turns completely brown, it will not recover.” You can prune out dead branches/areas and see how the plants overall recover.

JenREES 8-11-19

Crop Update and Hail Damage: While I don’t remember numbers as well, calendar dates are something I tend to remember. And, in agriculture, there’s numerous dates that accumulate over one’s life from hail, tornado, blizzard, flood, and wind events. I was reflecting on the Aug. 6th hail storm that occurred in Merrick, York, and Seward counties in 2018. This past week on August 7th, some woke up to hail/wind damage in Adams, Clay, and Nuckolls counties. The tree damage was incredible. Michael Sindelar, Clay Co. Educator, and I surveyed damage a day later. My estimation of the worst hit crops: corn around 80% defoliation with varying percentages of greensnap above/below ear and soybeans around 50% defoliated/broken off/with at least 50% pods on the ground. Where hail stones hit the ears, the kernels are mushy and mold is already setting in on corn at milk stage. There’s also mold setting in on soybean pods hit with hail stones. It’s hard to receive crop damage any time. The good news is that nothing appears to be a total loss; the majority of what we looked at was less than 40% defoliated and in general, the hail did not seem to penetrate the stalks, thus early stalk rot doesn’t appear to be setting in. Pictures at https://jenreesources.com.

Tree Problems: The majority of my questions the past 10 days were regarding tree 00100lPORTRAIT_00100_BURST20190807183910088_COVERleaves turning yellow and dropping from trees. They look stark against green grass. In general, what’s happening is the fact that we’ve had high humidity for a period of time now and we’ve had rain throughout spring and summer. Fungal pathogens thrive in these conditions. So, ornamental/flowering pears have pear rust; crabapples and apples have scab and also cedar-apple rust (depending on varieties); maples, ash, sycamores are showing anthracnose; and a number of other fungal leaf spots are observable on shade trees in general. Evergreen trees show various fungal needle spots. Ultimately, we don’t recommend doing anything for these diseases this time of year. We typically don’t recommend to spray shade trees in general, but fruit and evergreen trees should be sprayed in the spring if fungal diseases have occurred in the past. So, fungal diseased leaves may drop early and you may or may not observe a new flush of leaves yet this year. These fungal diseases won’t kill deciduous trees. They can kill evergreen trees over a period of years.

Oak leaves turning brown in clusters was also observed this past week. Sometimes

 

browning of leaves can be due to a fungal disease called anthracnose. Most of what I’m seeing, I believe, is environmental. It could be due to changes in hot/cool and periods of heavy moisture followed by lack of moisture on trees that had a huge flush of leaves due to moisture this spring. I really don’t know the cause for sure, but it doesn’t appear to be disease related from what I can tell. We wouldn’t recommend doing anything for the trees at this time.

UBBNRD Public Hearing: The Upper Big Blue NRD will hold a public hearing and informational open house on Aug. 19 at 7:00 p.m. at the Holthus Convention Center. The purpose is to receive comments on proposed changes to District Rule 5 – Ground Water Management Area Rules and Regulations. A complete copy of Rule 5 and the proposed changes are available at the district office and at www.upperbigblue.org/publichearing. The public will have the opportunity to learn more about these proposed changes and their effects, and address NRD board members about their concerns or support.

The proposed changes would stipulate that an approved nitrification inhibitor must be applied at the manufacturer’s recommended rate with pre-plant nitrogen fertilizer in the following situations: The application of anhydrous ammonia prior to March 1; The application of all nitrogen fertilizers other than anhydrous ammonia after February 29. In addition to these requirements, in Phase II and Phase III areas pre-plant application of nitrogen fertilizer shall not exceed 120 lbs. per acre. The remaining nitrogen fertilizer may be applied post plant. Prior to applying nitrogen fertilizer, but no later than April 1 of each year, each operator in the management area will be required to report information regarding the use of best management practices. For more information, visit www.upperbigblue.org or call (402)362-6601.

York County Corn Grower Plot Tour will be held Aug. 20th from 5-7 p.m. at 1611 Rd. 14 east of York. Pizza and refreshments will be provided and check out the latest hybrids. Guess the winning yield without going over and win a $50 gas card. All are welcome!

*End of News Column. Hail damage photos below.


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Pitting from hail stones can be observed on corn stalks and husks. The damage doesn’t seen to be penetrating stalks beyond the surface, thus stalk rot is not setting in at this time. This field also had wind damage where plants were broke off both above and below the ears.

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Kernels are mushy and damaged where hail stones hit and mold is already setting in.

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Soybean in worst areas were bent over/broken off with hail damage evident on stems.

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Soybean defoliation and soybean bent over from wind and hail damage. They will most likely try to upright themselves somewhat. Stems will become brittle over time and many pods were visible on the ground when lifted up.

JenREES 3-17-19

Perspective. I spoke a little of this last week. This week, in the midst of much occurring, it was all about perspective for me. It’s hard to find words for the devastation occurring in Nebraska. Perhaps like me, you found yourself feeling a tad overwhelmed or helpless by the images of damage…cattle being dug out of snow or stranded on islands and whole communities engulfed by water… I think what made this extra hard for me is that so many of our people are hurting and affected. Tornadoes and hail damage are somewhat more isolated for allowing people to more easily respond. This has been harder to help with road and bridge infrastructure damaged in so much of the State. And, unfortunately, we will feel these effects for a long time.

Perspective for me was counting my blessings. Because I rely a great deal on my faith, considering worse things I’ve personally gone through and remembering God’s faithfulness to me helps me with perspective. My family is all safe and we have each other, and my dad’s livestock are also safe. Those statements aren’t true for some I know who lost family and livestock this week and many more that I don’t know. In talking to a farmer friend, he was also sharing how he kept thinking about his blessings and that was the message he was sharing with others. So perhaps thinking of our blessings can help all of us with so much loss all around us? That actually is one of the research-based tips mentioned in this article: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2019/coping-stress-during-crisis.

Nebraskans are so resilient! In the midst of tragedy, the stories of people pulling together to help however they can is heart-warming. Though we may experience more devastation for a time, we will get through this! #NebraskaStrong.

Considerations and resources for now:

  • Please heed the warnings of emergency management and Nebraska State Patrol regarding road closures, bridges, etc. People not doing so has put them at additional risk for rescue operations.
  • There may be additional places in the future, but this is what was shared with me thus far. Anyone in need of feed for livestock or wishing to donate to help farmers/ranchers affected can consider doing so at Nebraska Farm Bureau’s website: https://www.nefb.org/get-involved/disaster-assistance
  • For anyone who has lost livestock, feed, fences in the past month due to weather or flooding, please call your local Farm Service Agency office to report those losses. Losses have to be reported within 30 days and a phone call will start that process. We have additional information regarding considerations for livestock losses that occurred due to extreme weather conditions before this most recent blizzard and flooding. I just don’t have room to cover all that here now.
  • We also realize that loss of livestock, farms, etc. is more than a source of income; it’s a livelihood. There’s an emotional component to loss that financial compensation can’t replace. Nebraska Extension cares about you and recognizes the additional stress that can occur to producers and your families during times of crisis and loss. A number of resources are available. The following has helpful tips on how to cope during crisis: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2019/coping-stress-during-crisis
  • I’d also ask us all to consider two things. One: continue checking in on each other and seeking to encourage as I wrote about in an earlier news column. Two: consider adding two phone numbers into your address book as we never know when we may need them.
    • The Nebraska Counseling, Outreach and Mental Health Therapy (COMHT) Program, 800-464-0258, offers no-cost vouchers for confidential mental health services for persons affected by the rural crisis.
    • Nebraska Farm Hotline/Rural Response Hotline – 1-800-464-0258.
  • All our flood information can be found at: http://flood.unl.edu.

Grain Observations

This post shares observations of what I’ve been seeing in fields pre-harvest and during harvest during this 2018 growing season. Some of these problems stemmed from hail/wind damage and others insect damage. This is a longer post with the desire to have many resources available to you in one place. Hopefully this will be helpful for diagnosing concerns as harvest continues.

Soybean Observations

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(Photos above) Hail-damaged soybeans pre-harvest. The plants in this field weren’t pummeled into the ground, but from the road it was deceiving as to what the soybeans were actually like on these plants. The two smaller photos are all the soybeans found on 2 adjacent plants from the top soybean photo pre-harvest. There were a lot of aborted pods on stems and moldy beans in general. For those who combined hail damaged beans in the area, farmers shared they had everything from ‘lima’ beans to shriveled, moldy beans as you can see in these pics, which is also what we were anticipating may be found.

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Examples of soybeans that had sprouted in the pod pre-harvest. We may unfortunately see a lot more of this with additional rains.

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Removed a bunch of pods from a plant with Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex in which there were many flat, unfilled pods and pods of various stages of fill. This is what I found in the pods. This complex consists of diseases such as Pod and Stem Blight, Stem Canker, and Phomopsis Seed Decay. Perhaps note which varieties you notice more of this.

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Two different grain quality concerns in soybean. (Left photo) This soybean damage can be attributed to potentially a few things. I have found pycnidia of Phomopsis (Phomopsis seed decay) in samples like this. The UNL Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic has also diagnosed Phomopsis Seed Decay in samples. There’s also a publication from Ohio State (https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2017-24/stink-bugs-soybean) which attributes these symptoms to stink bugs. There was stink bug pressure in some fields this past year. So there’s potential that we have a few things occurring creating these symptoms. (Right photo) This soybean damage is called ‘Purple Seed Stain’ and is caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii. I mentioned this in this blog post.

Corn Observations

 

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Pre-harvest was seeing quite a bit of Fusarium in places where hail stones or insect damage occurred on ears such as this photo. Notice at the base of the ear, the ‘starburst’ shape occurring within kernels (I think of it like fireworks exploding when viewing the top of the kernel). Kernels infected with Fusarium will have a white/pink fungal growth that later causes kernels to become brown or gray and shriveled.

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This ear was from the same hail-damaged field as photo above and I picked this right before the field was harvested. The Fusarium and picnic beetles had greatly destroyed affected kernels. Cladosporium (green colored fungus) can also be seen affecting this ear where damage had occurred.

Cladosporium ear and kernel rot seen on kernels already affected by Fusarium, particularly in hail damaged fields. This is a lesser ear rot fungi and doesn’t produce a mycotoxin but can create increased damage to kernels. Was recommending taking grain damaged to this extent directly to the elevator.

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The deep red color on this hail damaged ear is due to Gibberella. We may see an increase in this with all this late-season rain. Other symptoms include matted fungal growth with husks sticking to ears. Gibberella has the potential to produce the mycotoxin zearalenone. The presence of the fungus DOES NOT automatically mean the presence of a mycotoxin.

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Kernels at harvest displaying damage from Fusarium and Gibberella. I received a number of samples from various farmers displaying these symptoms and picked out these kernels to show. Notice the pink/red discoloration of the kernel and also the shrunken, damaged kernels that are brown or gray in color. Grain should be dried as quickly as possible to 15% moisture to cease fungal growth in storage.

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This is another field I’ve been watching that was hail damaged. The ears themselves show very little damage; however, my concern is the ‘starburst’ pattern occurring throughout these ears throughout the field. The ‘starburst’ pattern is also characterized by the white lines observed on the sides of individual kernels. This is caused by Fusarium.

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The above photo is that same field at harvest. ‘Starburst’ pattern on kernels seen as white streaking due to Fusarium. More severely infected kernels are brown in color and dissecting them show they were trying to germinate. Also noticing cob rot occurring. Drying the grain to 15% moisture as quickly as possible will cease fungal growth. Fusarium also has the potential to produce the mycotoxins Fumonisin and Deoxynivalenol (also known as DON or Vomitoxin). NOTE: The presence of the fungus DOES NOT automatically mean the presence of a mycotoxin.

Photos above shared by a Clay County farmer who observed kernel germination and Fusarium growth (mostly due to western bean cutworm damage) upon harvesting his field. Hormonal balance within the kernels shifts towards harvest. At full maturity, very little abscisic acid (ABA) is left in the kernel (in both corn and soybeans) which allows them to germinate in correct conditions after harvest. These conditions include moisture and temperatures above 50ºF. Presence of fungi such as Fusarium and Gibberella also increases gibberellins in the kernels allowing for kernel germination with presence of moisture as we’re seeing this harvest. Increasing air flow during harvest will hopefully blow most of these damaged kernels out the back of the combine.

Grain Storage

There’s over 25 species of fungi that can produce ear molds with the majority of them ceasing growth at 15% moisture within the kernel. Thus, we recommend drying grain to 15% moisture as quickly as possible to cease additional fungal growth within the grain bin. The table below shares the days required to dry corn to 15% moisture with 1.0 cfm/bu and various temperature and humidity conditions.

Days required to dry corn to 15 percent moisture with 1.0 cfm per bu. UNL EC

“Since drying time is directly proportional to the airflow, the producer can calculate the estimated drying times when using airflows other than 1.0 cubic foot of air per minute per bushel (cfm/bu). For example: Table II shows when drying corn from 18 percent to 15 percent moisture with 50F and 50% relative humidity air, the estimated drying time is 12.5 days using a 1.0 cfm/bu airflow. If the airflow is 1.25 cfm/bu, the estimated drying time would be 12.5 days / 1.25 = 10 days. For 1.5 cfm/bu, the drying time would be 12.5 days / 1.5 = 8.3 days. For 0.8 cfm/bu, the drying time would be 12.5 days / 0.8 = 15.6 days.” Source: Management of in-bin natural air grain drying systems to minimize energy cost.

Mycotoxin Information

In 2018, we’re primarily seeing Fusarium and Gibberella species which have the potential to produce mycotoxins. Thus, the information below is directed at those fungal species and mycotoxin levels that can be associated with them. Again, the presence of fungi does not automatically mean a mycotoxin is present.

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The following toxins can be produced from species of Fusarium and Gibberella. Source: Corn Ear Rots, Storage Molds, Mycotoxins, and Animal Health, Iowa State publication, 1997.

Table 2 expected detrimental feed concentrations of common fusarium mycotoxins-ISU

Source: Corn Ear Rots, Storage Molds, Mycotoxins, and Animal Health, Iowa State publication, 1997.

 

Also, there’s a new app called “Mycotoxins” and it’s another resource with ear rot pictures and mycotoxin information put out by several Universities produced for both Apple and Android devices.

JenREES 9-7-18

By the time this is printed in newspapers, we’ll be remembering September 11th. Grateful for all the first responders and all who have served our Country to defend our freedom since that day. Grateful for the sacrifices their families have made as well. Thinking of and praying for the families of those who lost their lives in the attacks and in defense of our Country since. May we never forget!

Encouragement: The wet weather has created challenges with harvest, making silage, increasing ear/stalk rots, kernel germination, and dampening spirits. So seeking to encourage: grateful for the soil moisture profile recharge the rain has provided and how it’s allowing pastures to recover and cover crops to grow! It’s really special to live in a State where our State Fair is now so ag and family focused! It was wonderful seeing so many farm families during the fair and I look forward to seeing many during Husker Harvest Days too! Thankfully harvest will be here soon and we’ll appreciate the sunshine that much more when we see it again!

Sprouted Kernels: I’m seeing and hearing of kernel sprouting in hail damaged and drought stressed corn in addition to corn hybrids that have tighter husks and upright ears. Sprouting is also occurring in soybean. So why are we seeing this?

IMAG6209Prior to full maturity it comes down to a hormonal imbalance within the kernels between gibberellin and abscisic acid (ABA). According to a study by White, et. al (2000), Gibberellin production with the lack of ABA allowed for kernel germination while less Gibberellin and more ABA deterred kernel germination. At full maturity, very little ABA is left in the kernel (in both corn and soybeans) which allows them to germinate in correct conditions after harvest.

These conditions include temperatures above 50ºF and moisture. Thus the continuous drizzle and rain we’ve experienced can allow for sprouting within soybean pods. In corn, sprouting under those conditions typically occurs at the base of the ear first but we’re also seeing it in exposed ear tips. We’ve also seen Fusarium and Gibberella ear rot fungi occurring in ears that have been damaged by hail and/or insects in ears. These fungi also produce gibberellins which can aid in the hormonal imbalance and stimulate kernel germination.Sprouting hail-damaged corn

If you’re seeing kernel sprouting in your field, make sure your crop insurance adjuster is aware of the situation and submit samples for kernel damage due to mold and sprouting. Also check for mycotoxins prior to harvest if ear molds are a problem in your field. The local co-op will decide whether to accept the load based on percent damage and the standards they need to follow. If the load is rejected, contact your crop insurance agent to determine your next step.Sprouting hail-damaged corn

Sprouted kernels lead to higher kernel damage and more fines in a load. Keys for harvest will include

  • harvesting early,
  • drying it to 14%, potentially drying at a high temperature to kill the sprout,
  • screening out fines, and
  • monitoring stored grain closely for hot spots, mold, and additional sprouting grain.

With the moisture continuing to exacerbate corn ear molds,particularly in hail damaged fields, you may also decide to take the grain for silage instead. More information regarding correctly making silage can be found at: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/silage-hailed-corn.

Husker Harvest Days Cornstalk Baling Workshop: Baling of cornstalk residue has been an increasing topic of interest among growers. Reasons are many including residue management when cattle don’t graze a field, use of residue as a feedstuff, and as was the case in 2017, to bale up much of the downed ears with the cornstalks. With this interest, we’ve had individuals contact us about custom baling residue as an additional income source. With the topic of residue baling comes many questions. These include:

  • What is the nutrient value of the residue removed from the field?
  • What are the impacts of residual removal on subsequent yields and field soil properties?
  • What is the feed value of that residue?
  • How do I best set my current equipment to bale corn residue?
  • Is my current equipment the best to bale corn residue?

This year, Nebraska Extension, Farm Progress, and several forage equipment manufacturers are partnering in a Corn Residue Baling Workshop at Husker Harvest Days (September 11-13). The workshop will be from 1:30-2:00 p.m. daily in the fields adjacent to the haying demonstrations, which begin at 2 p.m. Equipment manufacturers who have committed to the demonstration include: CNH, AGCO, Rowse Rakes, Vermeer, and John Deere.

Some of the manufacturers will be showcasing the same equipment in this workshop and in the haying demos. Each manufacturer will talk briefly about their equipment and specific settings that might be needed to make their machinery work better on residue. Because of the high moisture content of the corn residue during the Husker Harvest Days Show, equipment demonstrations of baling residue are not a possibility; however, videos of the manufacturers’ equipment in action can be viewed in the University of Nebraska Institute of Ag and Natural Resources building.

JenREES 8-19-18

Hail Damage Info: Thank you to all who attended our hail damage meetings last Monday and we truly hope the information was helpful. It was a lot of information at one time, so I have compiled it at: https://jenreesources.com/2018/08/14/late-season-hail-damage-resources/.
The ‘blessing’ in the timing of these later-season storms is in the reduced kernel moisture and shorter length of time till harvest. This is important to reduce the time for fungal growth in the ears. If you missed the meeting, presentations and information are at the link above. The main key I will stress: Please, ask your crop insurance agent how he/she wants to handle grain quality at harvest. Does the agent want to take samples for mold/potential mycotoxin? Does the agent go off of COOP samples? Does the agent require samples prior to going in the bin? These are key questions as we do know there is fungal growth on damaged ears. The presence of fungal growth does not automatically mean the presence of a mycotoxin. However, if grain quality isn’t handled and documented correctly at harvest, it can mean the loss of compensation if grain goes out of quality in storage. If anyone is taking hail damaged corn for silage, Dr. Mary Drewnoski is interested in samples prior to and after ensiling and is willing to help with sample analysis cost. Even if silage has already occurred, we’d be interested in samples after ensiling. Please contact me if interested. I will share additional considerations next week, but please check out the weblink above (or if it’s easier just go to http://jenreesources.com). Please let me know if you have any questions!

IMAG5774.jpg

One week after the August 6, 2018 hail storm, stalk rot is setting in where stones hit the stems. This is regardless if fungicide was sprayed on fields at some point this season.

IMAG5835.jpg

Soybean plants vary in damage. Many pods have moldy seeds where hail affected them or where they are no longer able to fill. We don’t tend to worry about molds in soybean and our experience has been these become light-weight and blow out the back of the combine at harvest.

IMAG5782.jpg

Seven days after the August 6, 2018 storm, fungal growth and mold is present on ears, but pretty much only the places where hail stones hit the kernels. Corn was at late dough to early dent at the time of this storm. The growth is minimal compared to what I’ve seen on ears when damaged earlier than this when more moisture was present in kernels. Fusarium which is fluffy and white/pink in color, is what I’m seeing mostly on the specific hail stone or any insect damage on ears (I took this pic after the ears were passed around at the meetings, so the fungi don’t show up well).  Fusarium has the potential to create the mycotoxins vomitoxin or fumonisin-but the presence of Fusarium (or related fungus Gibberella) does not automatically mean the presence of a mycotoxin. Diplodia (white growth see at top of photo near base of ear) is showing up more now with the additional moisture events. Diplodia does not have a mycotoxin associated with it. However, it will greatly explode on an ear creating light-weight ears and kernels and can be a problem in grain storage. It is what caused the most problem in the 2013 and 2014 hail storms. It also creates problems in tight-husked ears that remain upright and moisture gets into the base of them.

York County Corn Grower Plot Tailgate will be held from 5-7 p.m. on August 23rd. The plot is located east of York on Road 14 between Roads O and P on the north side of the road. View hybrids and visit with company representatives. Also, provide your estimate of the highest yield of the plot without going over. The winner will be awarded a Yeti cooler at the York County Corn Grower banquet in November. Pizza and beverages will be provided. Hope to see you there!

South Central Ag Lab Field Day will be held Wednesday, Aug. 29 from 8:55 a.m. to 4 p.m. at 851 HWY 6 near Harvard, NE. The day will begin with registration at 8:30 a.m., followed by tours of research sites through 4 p.m. Keynote speaker for the lunch is Mike Boehm, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Harlan Vice Chancellor for the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources and University of Nebraska vice president. Participants will be able to choose from four of the following six tours during the day. View program brochure for schedule.
Topics include the latest research in: Cover crops to corn issues; Corn insect management; Comparisons of variable rate irrigation and fertigation to fixed rate and impacts of cover crops on soil quality; Nitrogen fertilizer management (inhibitors and sensors) in irrigated corn; Corn and soybean disease updates; and Opportunities and challenges for weed control in soybean. CCA credits have been applied for. To register, please go to: https://go.unl.edu/2018scalfieldday by Aug. 26 for lunch planning purposes. Directions: 13 miles east of Hastings on Hwy 6 or 4.5 miles west of the intersection of Hwy 14 and Hwy 6. north of Clay Center.

Hamilton County Corn Grower Plot Tour will be held August 29th beginning at 11 a.m. The field location is just west of M Road and Hwy 34 on the south side (4 miles west of the Hwy 34 and 14 junction in Aurora), just past the viaduct. The program will feature Tom Hoegemeyer talking about the history of corn and how plant breeders have improved the yields. Kelly Brunkhorst, Executive Director of the Nebraska Corn Board will round out the program with an update on trade, the farm bill, and tariffs. Lunch starts at noon at the Oswald Farm followed by the featured speakers. The farm is located from L Road and Hwy 34 (5 miles west of the Hwy 34 and 14 junction in Aurora), 1 mile south to 12th Rd., then 1/2 mile west on the south side of the road.

Irrigation Field Days: Field days on Aug. 27 and 28 will demonstrate soil water measuring tools in production fields designed to help growers feel confident with their irrigation scheduling decisions. The demonstrations will show several irrigation scheduling equipment systems that were installed in the field this summer and have been recording data. Field Days will be located:

  • August 27 – near Broken Bow.  The August 27 presentation will be part of the Custer County Corn Growers 2018 Field Day at the Jeremy Coleman farm near Broken Bow. The tour will start at 5:30 p.m. at the field site, located five miles west of the intersection of Hwy 2 and Callaway Road then south ¾ mile on 433 Road. A meal will be served about 6:30 p.m. at Coleman’s shop one mile east of the field on Road 798. The educational program will be presented during the meal.
  • August 28 – near Bradshaw. The August 28 tour will start at 12 p.m. with field demonstrations of the irrigation scheduling equipment, followed by a meal and presentations in the farm shop. The Bruce Hudson farm is at 2405 Road G, Bradshaw. That is 3.5 miles east of Polk on Hwy 66 to Rd G and 2 .7 miles south or from Benedict (Hwy 81 & State Spur 93C) 6 miles west to Rd G and 2.25 miles north.

Late Season Hail Damage Resources

 

A special thank you to the Nebraska Extension team who shared during today’s hail damage meetings! They were well attended with nearly 120 participants between the two locations. Hopefully the information was of help as you talk with your crop insurance adjuster and know what to expect going forward. Below are the resources we provided and additional items including presentations that were discussed.  Contact information for the speakers is listed at the bottom of this post. We will continue to add resources to this page if you’d like to check back. Thanks!

Presentations:

General Hail Damage Resources:

UNL Extension Hail Know web site: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/hailknow

Hail Damage Videos:

UNL CropWatch Storm Damage: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/storm-damage-response-information

Irrigation:

Corn at Beginning Dent needs 5” of water; ¼ milk = 3.75”; ½ milk (Full dent) = 2.25”; ¾ milk = 1”. Soybean at beginning seed (R5) = 6.5”; R6 full seed = 3.5”; leaves beginning to yellow = 1.9”.

NebGuide Predicting the Last Irrigation of the Season. Use the last page to walk through an example of how much water you may need to finish out the crop for crop insurance purposes. Also realize that severely hail damaged plants may progress more rapidly than the number of days for each growth stage listed in this NebGuide and that damaged plants may not use as much water as mentioned here. http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g1871.pdf

Crop coefficients chart by growth stage: https://nawmn.unl.edu/GrowthStageData

Forages:

If anyone is taking hail damaged corn for silage, Dr. Mary Drewnoski is interested in samples prior to and after ensiling and is willing to help with sample analysis cost. Even if silage has already occurred, we’d be interested in samples after ensiling. Please contact her if interested (contact info. at bottom of this post).

The three links below are the ones that answer specific questions. The first article answers a few questions regarding forage considerations for hail-damaged corn and soybean. The over-riding decisions will be based on planting date. Sudangrass or sorghum x sudangrass crosses and millets are still appropriate until August 15, although seed supplies of these are dwindling.  After that, we are looking at oats/turnips.  Drilling these directly into the stubble is the best option for planting. There was also a great discussion regarding earlage and we need to create an article regarding that topic.

https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/forage-cover-crop-considerations-after-hail-corn-and-soybean

This article addresses nitrate concerns when grazing forage cover crops: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/reducing-nitrate-concerns-when-grazing-forage-cover-crops

This article addresses cover crops:
https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/cover-crops-soil-health-storm-damaged-fields

Table 1. Cover crop considerations for late-season hail-damaged crops
COVER CROP USE/GOAL WHEN TO PLANT HOW TO SEED RATE
(PER ACRE)
ADDITIONAL NOTE
OATS Weed Management By Sept. 1 Drill best. Can fly on. 30-40 lbs *
OATS/RYE MIX Weed Management By Sept. 1 Drill best. Can fly on. 30 lbs each *
OATS Forage By Sept. 1 Drill best. Can fly on. 80-90 lbs *
OAT/RYE MIX Forage By Sept. 1 Drill best. Can fly on. 30-40 lbs of rye and 50-60 lbs oats *
BRASSICAS (TURNIP, COLLARD, RAPESEED)-NOT OILSEED RADISHES Cover ground, forage, nitrogen uptake By Sept. 1 Fly on for quicker establishment. 5-6 lbs  —
RYE Weed management, cover ground, forage, nitrogen uptake After Sept. 1 Drill best. Can fly on. 50-60 lbs  *
*If adding a brassica to any of these small grain options, only 2 lb/ac is needed. Rapeseed isn’t as well known, but is an inexpensive and good option for consideration.

Other Forage Considerations

Grain Quality/Mold/Mycotoxins/Grain Storage:

Diplodia ear rot is perhaps the most common with these types of storms. Good news, Diplodia does not have a mycotoxin associated with it. Bad news is this fungus explodes on an ear creating light-weight ears and explodes in grain bins.

It will be wise to assess which fields/portions of fields are affected the worst with mold. Consider not storing any of that grain as it will be difficult to manage and keep from getting worse in storage. You will also need to assess which fields have increased risk of stalk rot by using the pinch test (Use your thumb and first finger to pinch the stalk internode above the soil line. If it easily crushes, the plant has stalk rot). Consider harvesting those portions of fields or fields most affected by stalk rot first.

Ear Rot Diseases and Grain Molds: http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/ec1901.pdf

Stalk Rot Diseases: http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/ec1868.pdf

Sprouting of Corn Kernels: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/sprouting-corn-kernels-hail-damaged-ears

Tips for Testing Storm Damaged Corn (Veterinarian perspective): https://cropwatch.unl.edu/storm-damaged-corn-tips-testing-and-using

Grain Storage Resources: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/grain-storage-management

Crop Insurance Questions:

Every field situation may vary. If you have hail insurance, the insurance adjuster should evaluate ear damage in addition to percent defoliation and stalk breakage.

Ask your insurance adjuster how they assess grain quality damage.

  • What are their rules?
  • Do they go by the COOP results for mold/mycotoxin/dockage?
  • Do they require the insurance agent to come out and take a sample for mold/mycotoxin?
  • Do they require you to call them before you put grain into your bin? (This is especially the case if aflatoxin may be of concern. We don’t anticipate that being a problem with this storm damage. However, if they require a sample for mold/mycotoxin in general, they may ask you to call them to take a sample before the grain gets put into a bin).
  • If you do have presence of mold and/or mycotoxin, it’s best to have it documented before the grain goes into the bin. If the grain gets out of quality and the mold and/or mycotoxin increases in your bin by spring, if it wasn’t documented at harvest, you may not get compensated.

 

Mary Drewnoski                          Daren Redfearn                            Justin McMechan
Extension Beef Nutritionist       Extension Forage Specialist       Extension Crop Systems
402-472-6289                                 (402) 472-2662                               (402) 624-8041
mary.drewnoski@unl.edu         dredfearn2@unl.edu                   justin.mcmechan@unl.edu

Steve Melvin                                 Jenny Rees
Extension Educator                    Extension Educator
(308) 946-3843                             (402) 440-4739
steve.melvin@unl.edu               jrees2@unl.edu

Hail Damage Meetings

Aug. 13 Hail Damage Meeting

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