Blog Archives

Crop Update 8/1/14

Southern rust of corn confirmed in Clay County July 31.  This was found on one leaf in a field near Trumbull.  Just because southern rust has been found in the area, we don't recommend automatically spraying.  Scout your fields and consider disease pressure, growth stage, and economics.  Long season corn and late-planted fields have the potential for most damage.

Southern rust of corn confirmed in Clay County July 31. Very small, tan-brown lesions on upper surface of the leaf, usually in clusters.  Spores inside the pustules are typically orange.  This was found on one leaf in a field near Trumbull. Just because southern rust has been found in the area, we don’t recommend automatically spraying. Scout your fields and consider disease pressure, growth stage, and economics. Long season corn and late-planted fields have the potential for most damage.  Secondary common rust sporulation has also been confused as southern rust as the secondary pustules tend to look like this.  It’s important to obtain microscopic confirmation to know for sure if you have southern rust in your fields.

Spores of southern rust appear elongated vs. common rust appear as near perfect circles.

Microscopic Observation:  Spores of southern rust appear elongated vs. common rust appear as near perfect circles.

Another common problem is old common rust lesions being confused as gray leaf spot.  The color of this lesion is a tan-gray, typical of gray leaf spot.  Using backlighting or a handlens, you can see the pustules within this lesion confirming it is common rust and not gray leaf spot.  I've had many calls that gray leaf spot was up the entire plant in their fields and after looking at fields, have found it to be common rust in most situations.  It's important to know what disease you truly have to make the best decision on fungicide application.

Another common problem is old common rust lesions being confused as gray leaf spot. The color of this lesion is a tan-gray, typical of gray leaf spot. Using backlighting or a handlens, you can see the pustules within this lesion confirming it is common rust and not gray leaf spot. I’ve had many calls that gray leaf spot was up the entire plant in their fields and after looking at fields, have found it to be common rust in most situations. It’s important to know what disease you truly have to make the best decision on fungicide application.

Have also received questions on soybeans, particularly in dryland.  Soybeans are drought stressed-often showing it in pockets within dryland fields right now.  Closer observation shows plants aborting pods and losing lowest leaves.  Spidermites can also be viewed on leaves in some of these patches.

Have also received questions on soybeans, particularly in dryland. This photo is showing drought stressed soybeans-often occurring in pockets within dryland fields right now. Closer observation shows plants aborting pods and losing lowest leaves. Spidermites can also be viewed on leaves in some of these patches.

Dryland corn showing stress as well.  June rains were making for dryland crops with potential, but also led to shallow rooting.  Crops could use a drink right now....but would prefer no more ice and hail.  The storm that hit Clay County so hard occurred one year ago today.

Dryland corn showing stress as well. June rains were making for dryland crops with potential, but also led to shallow rooting. Crops could use a drink right now….but would prefer no more hail and tornadoes. The storm that hit Clay County so hard occurred one year ago today.

Cow-Calf College

This looks like an excellent workshop for anyone in cow-calf production.  Hope to see you there!
(Click on the agenda below to enlarge the view).

Cow-Calf College

Storm Damaged Crops

The rain was welcome on Thursday but the wind and hail damage that came were devastating to a good portion of theSeverely damaged corn County.  I’m so sorry to all of you affected….for some of you, this is two years in a row of severely hail damaged or totaled out crops.  We are thankful the damage wasn’t worse.  You can see more pictures here.

So the big question is what do you do now?  Ultimately, each field will need to be assessed on a case by case basis.  The following are our NebGuides for hail damage to corn and soybeans.  For the most part we were in brown-silk to blister for corn and late pod-beginning seed in soybean (R4-R5).  The concerns I have right now are stalk quality, disease, grain filling, and the amount of diseased grain we may have due to mushy areas on hail-damaged cobs right now.   Several years ago, we watched how severely hail-damaged corn a little later in the season turned brown and died.  We also know that southernCorn ears damaged by hail that are turning mushy. rust is in the area and while much of the leaf tissue in the County is damaged, it is still in the County in other fields and south of us.  The Puccinia polysora fungus that causes southern rust, when severe enough, will infect and cause pustules on the stalks.  With the wounding and low leaf area for photosynthesis, stalk strength is a concern and fungicides may be a consideration depending on potential yield loss-again need to assess on a field by field basis.

I talked with a number of people on Friday regarding thoughts on silage, green chop, haying/baling, planting cover crops, etc.  Dr. Bruce Anderson, UNL Extension Forage Specialist, said the most common salvage operation for corn damaged by hail, wind, drought, or other calamities is to chop it for silage.  Don’t be in a hurry, though.  Standing corn currently could be over 80 percent moisture.  The easiest way, and maybe the best way, to lower moisture content is simply wait until some stalks start to turn brown.  Waiting also allows surviving corn to continue to add tonnage.

But in some of our damaged fields, I don’t think we can wait to make silage.  Bruce also shared you can reduce moisture by windowing the crop and allow it to wilt one-half to one full day before chopping.  You also could mix grain or chopped hay to freshly chopped corn to lower the moisture content.  It takes quite a bit of material for mixing though – about 7 bushels of grain or 350 pounds of hay to lower each ton of silage down to 70 percent moisture from an original 80 percent moisture.  That’s 7 bushels grain or 350 pounds of hay for each ton of silage.

Or, you can allow that windrowed corn to dry completely and bale it as hay.  Be sure to test it for nitrates before feeding.   Grazing might be the easiest way to use damaged corn, and this is a good way to extend your grazing season.  You might even plant some corn grain or sorghum-sudangrass or oats and turnips between rows to grow more forage for grazing if you can wait until late fall before grazing.  Be sure to introduce livestock slowly to this new forage by feeding them before turning in to reduce the chances of digestive problems.  Also, strip graze the field to reduce trampling losses and get more grazing from the corn.

Gardening in Drought

As I set here writing, we went from wearing t-shirts yesterday to receiving freezing rain and sleet today!  The precipitation is much welcomed and it’s nice to see spring bulbs coming up and the grass turning green!  But we’re unfortunately not out of the woods yet regarding this drought, and may not be for some time.

This Thursday, April 11, Elizabeth Killinger, UNL Extension Educator in Hall County, will be talking to us about gardening during drought.  Come enjoy an evening of learning about drought-tolerant plants and ideas for your landscape!  The evening begins with a light supper at 5:30 p.m. and we plan to be finished around 7:00 p.m.  There will be no charge for this workshop, so please come and invite your friends and your youth who enjoy gardening as well!

Also, if you would like to bring some plants for exchange, you are welcome to do so and share with others!  Please call the Clay County Extension Office at (402) 762-3644 or Jenny at jrees2@unl.edu to let us know you’re coming so we can plan for the meal.  See you then!gardening in drought

Corn Planting Rate Research & Recs

Even with recent rain and snow events, the subsoil is still dry.  You may be wondering,

“What should I do regarding corn planting rates in 2013?”

A few weeks ago, UNL Extension held our on-farm research meetings to share our 2012 Corn Planting Rate results for irrigated and dryland conditions.  I always enjoy hearing our farmers share why they were interested in a certain trial and what they found out as a result.

Our farmers followed protocols of 28K, 32K, 36K, 40K (40,000 seeds/acre) or 30K, 34K, 38K, 42K/acre for irrigated production and 18K, 22K, 26K, and 30K for dryland production. 2012 Irrigated On-farm Corn Population Study-UNL

The results since 2010 continue to show us that each individual hybrid varies in its response to increasing populations; however, there is a general trend with newer hybrids that increasing population results in increased yields.  Dr. Tom Hoegemeyer, UNL Agronomy Professor of Practice spoke about how our hybrids have genetically come so far in combating various stresses while maintaining yields.  We know that many seed companies have conducted research to determine the population calibration curve for each hybrid to determine best recommendations for you.  Thus, we’d recommend that you check with your seed dealer to determine which hybrid may fit best at which population for your operation.

Even with this data, you may question if that’s truly the best population for your field; that’s where on-farm research comes in!  We recommend testing the recommended population against a higher and lower population with at least 4000 seeds/acre difference in planted population-whether irrigated or dryland.  With today’s technologies, it’s not very difficult to test seeding rates for different hybrids for yourself!

So what rate should you plant this year?  In the majority of our irrigated studies, economically, many hybrids maximized yields and economic returns between 32,000-36,0o0 seeds/acre.  Again, this is very hybrid dependent so ask your seed dealer what he/she would recommend and test for yourself!

Regarding limited irrigation, UNL research has actually shown a negative effect of lost yield by backing off population too far in a dry year. 2012 Dryland On-farm Research Corn Population Study-UNL

Tom’s recommendation was for dryland in Eastern Nebraska, most hybrids even with the low soil moisture profile should be ok with planting 24,000-28,000 seeds/acre.  I realize we have essentially no moisture in our profile.  But taking probabilities of rainfall events, March-May is usually pretty good and we don’t want to short-change ourselves in yield by planting too low of populations.  For Central into Western, NE, I feel 20,000-22,000 seeds/acre will work for many hybrids.  Our genetics have come so far since we finished the last drought in 2007 and were planting 18,000 seeds/acre in dryland.  We will just keep praying for rain and hope for the best next year!  Ultimately, test this and your other on-farm questions for yourself to know what will work for your farm!

If you’re interested in conducting some seeding rate trials, please let anyone on our UNL On-Farm Research Team know!  All our studies are posted on the CropWatch on-farm research page.

What planting rates are you considering for 2013?

 

%d bloggers like this: