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JenREES 4/4/21

Hope you had a blessed Easter! For me, it was an extra blessing to worship in person and be with family this year! This week sharing on a variety of questions I’ve received.

Private Pesticide Certification/Recertification: for those still needing pesticide certification:

  • Easiest option: attend a Zoom training being held this week on April 9th at 9:00 a.m. You can register at the following site: https://go.unl.edu/patapril9. You will receive a zoom link to attend that training. The materials and payment will occur at the local county Extension office of your choice. Cost is $50.
  • Online pesticide training: This is self-paced with quizzes. You can register and pay online here: https://web.cvent.com/event/4efa4d41-c770-4a78-99d7-4c4ea75d45ae/summary. Cost is $50. If you have bad bandwidth or have difficulty with computers, please call your local Extension educator.

2021 Nebraska farm real estate survey can be found here: https://go.unl.edu/9exp.

Emerald Ash Borer Map: We don’t recommend treatment for ash trees until your tree is within a 15 mile radius of where emerald ash borer has been confirmed. Right now, most of Seward county is in the treatment zone but York county is not. We also only recommend considering treating high value trees that don’t have obvious health issues. You can view a map of the suggested treatment areas at:  https://nfs.unl.edu/documents/EAB/EABmap1-22-21.png. More information can be found at: https://nfs.unl.edu/eab-faq.

Small Grains and Jointing: The jointing stage of wheat, rye, and triticale is when the growing point comes above ground. This is a critical stage when taking these crops for grain, as growth regulator herbicides, particularly dicamba, can cause injury to the stem base (causing wheat to grow prostrate) and heads of the plants (emerge deformed) if they’re applied. The best way to check for jointing is to pull up a plant by the roots, slit open the main (thickest) stem from the base up, and see if you can see the developing head or not. I was seeing jointing occurring in earliest planted rye in York Co. last Thursday. 2,4-D and MCPA are labeled from full tillering till prior to boot stage but I’ve still seen 2,4-D at jointing to cause wheat to grow prostrate at times. K-State shares in spite of this, they don’t typically see yield loss in these situations when 2,4-D was applied.

In this picture, splitting the stem with a box cutter or razor blade, reveals the rye is jointing as the growing point (shown above) is visible above ground.

Cover crop termination: University of Missouri recently released results of a multi-state study funded by the United Soybean Board looking at herbicide options for cover crop termination. Control of cereal rye and wheat used for cover crops was best with glyphosate alone or in combination with 2,4-D, dicamba, Sharpen, or Select. For legume cover crops, glyphosate, gramoxone, and liberty were all similarly effective, particularly in combination with 2,4-D, dicamba, or Sharpen. Brassica species weren’t reviewed in this study, but there are ratings available in the front section of the 2021 weed guide which show highest control ratings with glyphosate + 2,4-D or dicamba. The full study results can be found here: https://ipm.missouri.edu/IPCM/2020/3/coverCropTermination-KB/.

Seed corn maggots: Something on my mind is the potential for seed corn maggot pressure this year. They tend to be a problem when fields recently had manure applied or have green plant material, like cover crops, that have been incorporated into the soil within two weeks of planting the cash crop. But we’ve also seen them when the covers or manure haven’t been incorporated. The past few years we’ve seen increased seed corn maggot damage to soybeans, particularly when planted into a field that had a brassica cover crop such as turnips, radishes, and forage collards. I’ve rarely seen damage warrant replanting soybean. There’s no rescue treatments. Insecticidal seed treatments often provide protection and in-furrow insecticides can provide additional preventive protection for fields with a history of seed corn maggot damage. Extension entomologists also recommend to avoid planting during peak fly emergence which occurs when 354, 1080, and 1800 GDD have accumulated since Jan. 1 (using a base temp of 39F for the calculation), but this may not always be feasible.

Seed corn maggot feeding on germinating soybean.

Emerald Ash Borer Found in Seward County

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA) confirmed Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was found in a trap at the Blue Valley Campground in Seward, NE in early August 2020. This article will share information from Elizabeth Killinger, Extension Horticulture Educator, about what this means for your ash trees and what you should be doing now.

“Finding borer holes in ash trees doesn’t necessarily mean you have EAB. There are several different types of borers that attack ash trees, so correct identification is key. There are several different native borers that are normally found on ash trees. The ash/lilac borer, banded ash clearwing and carpenter worm can attack healthy ash trees. The redheaded ash borer, banded ash borer, flatheaded apple tree borer and eastern ash bark beetle attack stressed or dying ash trees. Knowing exactly which insect is in your tree will let you know if you should start looking for a replacement or if you need to treat.

EAB is an invasive beetle that attacks and kills all species of ash. It is a small, metallic-green beetle that is about 1/2 inch long. The larvae of this wood-boring insect tunnel under the bark of ash trees, disrupting the flow of water and nutrients, ultimately causing the tree to die. EAB infested ash trees will exhibit thinning or dying branches in the top of the tree, S-shaped larval galleries under bark, D-shaped exit holes and suckers or advantageous growth along the trunk and main branches.

Proper tree identification is key to knowing if you should be concerned about EAB or not. The bark of ash trees have diamond shapes or capital “A’s”. Ash trees have an opposite leaf pattern, or the buds are across from one another on the stem. They also have leaves of 5 to 7 leaflets. If you are lucky enough to get the seeded variety, the seeds look like paddle-shaped helicopters and are held in clusters on the tree. Ash trees, those in the Fraxinus genus, can include the green, white, Patmore, Marshall’s Seedless, and Autumn Purple Ash. Mountain Ash is not affected because it isn’t a true ash.

If your tree has EAB-like symptoms, like canopy thinning, branch dieback, sprouting growth from the base of the tree, or D-shaped exit holes, it should be examined by a professional. Leave your ash trees in as long as they are healthy, in good condition, and in a good location. If your tree is dying or diseased, it may be best to hire a certified arborist to look at your trees and determine the cause of the decline.

Because of the cost, treatments are only recommended for high value and/or already healthy trees. Once EAB has been confirmed within the 15 mile radius of your location, then you can begin the proper treatment applications on healthy trees. Depending on the size of the tree, a soil drench is one option for homeowners. The drench can be applied to trees with under a 20” diameter trunk yearly throughout the lifespan of that tree. Tree care professionals are able to use additional products like trunk injections on larger trees. Contact a certified arborist for these treatments. Some products are best applied in the spring, while others can be done throughout the summer. We don’t recommend treatments this fall.

Ash has been a popular landscape and conservation tree for a long time due to its fast growing nature and overall appearance. Diversity in the landscape is important to the overall health of the community forest. Aim to have diversity and try not to have any one species make up more than 10% of the landscape. A diverse landscape isn’t as affected by single outbreak. Now is an excellent time to start thinking about replacement trees for ash. For a list of replacement trees visit The Nebraska Forest Service list of replacement trees or Trees for Western Nebraska (PDF). More information about the emerald ash borer, finding an arborist, and recommendations can be found at https://nfs.unl.edu/nebraska-eab.”

JenREES 9-6-20

Harvest: Harvest has begun for some with soybeans, seed corn, and silage. For all of us as we’re on the roads, please be alert and slow down. It’s also important to talk about safety with teens who drive. With it being so dry, gravel roads are extra dusty, reducing visibility. It can be helpful to turn on headlights and be sure to slow down at intersections. On highways, slow down when coming upon slow-moving equipment. And, be aware of equipment turning. Here’s wishing everyone a safe harvest!

Nebraska Public Power District, Rural Radio, Center for Ag Safety and Health, and Nebraska Extension are teaming up to share on harvest safety with the Harvest Safety Tour. Power line, ATV, and grain bin safety demos will be on display and a free lunch will be served September 9th from 11 a.m.-1 p.m. at the big parking lot at the York County Fairgrounds. For more information call 877-ASK-NPPD.

Early and mid-group two soybeans rapidly turned last week and may be drier than one realizes in spite of having green stems. Every year it’s a challenge to harvest close to 13% moisture. There’s a dock for delivering wet beans. While not a dock, delivering soybeans below 13% moisture reduces profits because there’s fewer bushels to sell (load weight divided by 60 lbs/bu assuming 13% moisture). Selling soybeans at 8% moisture, you’re losing about 5.43% yield; at 9% moisture, it’s 4.4%; at 10% moisture, 3.3%; at 11% moisture, 2.25%; and at 12% moisture, it’s 1.14% yield loss. That doesn’t take into account additional risk for shatter losses during harvest. The following are two profit examples:

Example 1: Based on the elevator dockage numbers obtained, if the grower was to sell beans at 13.8% moisture, he/she would be docked 3% of the selling price of $8.75/bu, reducing the actual price to $8.49 per bushel. Total income per acre would be: 75 bu/ac yield x $8.49/bu = $636.75 per acre gross

Example 2. If the soybeans were harvested at 9% moisture, there would be 3.3 fewer bushels per acre to sell (4.4% of 75 bu/ac yield due to water loss): 75 bu/ac – 3.3 bu/ac =71.7 bu/ac yield x $8.75 = $627.38 per acre gross

In this example it’s better to take a dockage for selling beans at 13.8% moisture than sell them at 9%. The difference is a positive gain of $9.37 per acre or almost $1265 on a 135 acre field.

Harvesting at 13% moisture is perhaps a combination of art and luck depending on environmental conditions. Some tips to achieve this can include begin harvesting at 14% moisture, making combine adjustments and operating at slower speeds (consider these equipment adjustment tips for your combine), plan variety selection to spread out maturity and harvest (we’re finding around 1 day delay for every 0.1 difference in maturity group), and avoid harvest losses from shatter as only 4-5 beans on the ground can add up to a bushel per acre loss.

Pasture & Forage Minute: With Dr. Bruce Anderson’s retirement (former Extension Forage Specialist), a team of Extension specialists and educators are sharing pasture and forage minutes. These quick updates are also shared via email. If you’re interested in receiving them, you can sign up for the email list by going to this site: https://listserv.unl.edu/signup-anon , enter PASTURE-AND-FORAGE under ‘list name’, and your email. 

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was found in Seward in a trap at the Blue Valley Campground in early August. We don’t recommend treatments right now in the fall. Because of the cost, treatments are only recommended for high value and/or already healthy trees. Once EAB has been confirmed within the 15 mile radius of your location, then you can begin the proper treatment applications on healthy trees. A yearly soil drench application is one option for homeowners for trees under a 20” trunk diameter. Tree care professionals are able to use additional products like trunk injections on larger trees. Contact a certified arborist for these treatments. Some products are best applied in the spring, while others can be done throughout the summer. Treatment zone considerations can be found here: https://nfs.unl.edu/documents/EABmap_2020-08-03.png. Please don’t move firewood to help prevent the spread!

Emerald Ash Borer

emerald ash borer

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