Crabgrass Preventer: Warm season annual grasses such as crabgrass and foxtail germinate when soil temperature at the 0-2” depth is consistently between 60-70F. Thus, we often say that reasonably, crabgrass preventer can be applied when soil temps at the 0-2” depth are consistently around 55F. Our CropWatch soil temperatures are measured at a 0-4” depth (https://cropwatch.unl.edu/soiltemperature). Based on them, it may be time to apply or at least getting close in the York area. If you’d like to determine the soil temp of your site locally, you can use a temperature probe or a meat thermometer (that you won’t use for cooking). Make a mark at 2” from the base and it will give you an idea. Remember to blow off or sweep lawn clippings and fertilizer from the sidewalks back onto lawns!
Moths: Our Extension entomologists are also starting to see black cutworm, variegated cutworm, and true armyworm moths in pheromone traps throughout Nebraska. You can see pictures and the counts (which will be updated) in CropWatch at https://go.unl.edu/jdd3.
Planting Green: Been receiving a number of questions throughout the state on this. We wrote a planting green article for CropWatch this week https://go.unl.edu/ysyi. We have minimal research but in the article, we explain more regarding herbicide considerations, what the research shows regarding allelopathy, and considerations based on growers’ and our observations and experiences. We haven’t found any wheat stem maggot flies in rye yet in Clay, York, or Seward counties. The flies we’re getting questions on are small brown flies and also seed corn maggot flies. Having an insecticide seed treatment on corn and beans will help against seed corn maggots. More info. from Iowa State: https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/cropnews/2020/04/seedcorn-maggots-flying-iowa
Seed Treatments for SDS: Continuing from last week, the summary is that ILeVO is an effective seed treatment in fields with high sudden death syndrome (SDS) pressure. However, not all areas of the field have the same amount of pressure, making it difficult to justify the cost field-wide. Three Nebraska on-farm research studies were conducted in soybeans in 2017 with a multi-hybrid planter. Soybeans with a farmer’s choice base seed treatment (check) were compared to the base seed treatment plus ILeVO. The goal was to look at site-specific application of ILeVO to reduce input costs while still effectively managing sudden death syndrome (SDS) pressure. Management zones were created using historical yield maps to show which zones were conducive to SDS pressure (SDS zone) and which weren’t (standard zone). Check strips and ILeVO treated strips were compared in both zones. Two of the locations showed no difference between the base treatment and base treatment + ILeVO in the SDS or the standard zones. At one location, SDS was not present in the field. In the other, the ILeVO treatment had significantly lower disease levels than the standard treatment and overall disease incidence was considered low. At the third site, the standard + ILeVO treatment yielded higher than the standard treated seed in the SDS zone. There was no difference in treatments in the standard zone. The SDS zone was around 50 acres and along a creek that ran through the field (Figure 1). Additional ILeVO studies were conducted in 2015-2016 via on-farm research in Dodge, Clay, and Nemaha Counties where an untreated check, base seed treatment, and base + ILeVO were compared. SDS incidence ratings were taken in addition to soybean cyst nematode samples. In two of the six fields, there was a yield difference between the base + ILeVO and other treatments, even though disease incidence was low. Two sites also had a significant decrease in SDS pressure with the ILeVO treatment, but it didn’t correlate in increased yield. These studies found ILeVO to be effective in reducing SDS pressure, but yield response and profitability depends on disease development and how widespread in the field. SDS pressure was found to be higher in frequently ponded soils or areas of the field with creeks or intermittent streams. We have no on-farm research data on Saltro although we have a York Co. study on it this year.
It’s the time of year for boxelder bugs! Great information from Elizabeth Killinger, UNL Extension Educator in the following post.
Daylight Savings time is ending and it is time to ‘fall back’ once again. Fall brings about cooler temperatures, changing leaves, and boxelder bugs by the millions. Find out what you can do to help keep these pests from invading your home.
Depending on where you grew up, the boxelder bug can have many names. Some of the more common ones include; maple bug, democrat bug, populist bug, and politician bug. Regardless of what you call them, they are annoying to say the least. The boxelder bug gets one of its common names from its primary host plant, the female boxelder tree. They can also be found on ash, and maple, and occasionally feeding on strawberries, grasses and other plants. The adults are ½ inch long red with black coloration under their wings. This time of the year they begin to cover…
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Great information from Elizabeth Killinger, UNL Extension, regarding keeping fall invaders out of our homes!
Warm days and cool nights signal that fall is here. The pumpkins are ready to be picked, the leaves will soon be in full color display and the wolf spiders and crickets will start migrating into the home. Not exactly what you had in mind for a peaceful fall? Find out how to start preparing now to keep these invaders from making themselves at home in your home.
When the temperatures start dipping, the pests start coming in. Nobody really wants to spend the winter outdoors and insects are no different. Some of the more common nuisance pests, or occasional invaders, include boxelder bugs, multicolored Asian Lady Beetles, millipedes, and crickets. These pests don’t do any harm inside the home; they are just looking for a cozy place to spend the winter.
Proper identification of the insect will assure the proper control method. Boxelder bugs are black and orange true…
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This past week was a blur of calls, questions, and visits to homes and fields but it was a great week and flew by staying very busy! I’ll touch on a few of the common questions I’ve received this week.
Trees: Some trees such as willows, hackberries, tops of maple trees, ash, and black walnut are just taking time leafing out. Some trees leafed out once already and dropped leaves. Things that may have caused this were the sudden flux of temperatures from very warm to cool and the strong winds we received. Some trees have also unfortunately had herbicide drift damage that caused leaves to drop. On those trees, watch for new buds as nearly every situation I’ve looked at thus far have new buds forming after about a week-10 days. With all these situations, give the trees a few weeks to leaf out again and if they’re still not doing it, feel free to give me a call. Trees are interesting plants as sometimes environmental impacts that happened 3-5 years ago will show up that much later-and sometimes environmental impacts show up right away!
Disease/Insect issues: This year has been a strange year all around but with our warm winter, I was concerned about an increase in diseases and insects. Thus far, we’re experiencing increases in both-so hang on-it may be a long growing season! Our high humidity, warm temps, and heavy dews have created perfect conditions for fungal diseases on our trees, ornamental plants, lawns (I’m currently fighting a bad case of powdery mildew-as a plant pathologist it is kind of pretty but I don’t like what it’s doing to my lawn!), and in our wheat and alfalfa crops and some pasture grasses. Fungicides may help in some of these situations, increasing airflow can also help as can more resistant varieties or hoping the weather will change. In the case of most ornamentals, we don’t usually recommend doing anything. The same goes for insects as insecticides can help in some situations. I’ve received several calls this past week of people afraid they had herbicide drift damage. While there were a few cases of that, many of the cases were actually fungal leaf spots on leaves. There are various fungicides and insecticide products available from home/garden centers, etc. Be sure to read and follow all label directions and only apply the product on places the label specifies it can be applied.
Crops Update: Later this week we may have a better idea on the extent of storm damage and if some fields will need to be replanted after the storms from last week. Dr. Bob Nielsen from Purdue University reported that most agronomists believe young corn can survive up to about four days of ponding if temperatures are relatively cool (mid-60’s F or cooler); fewer days if temperatures are warm (mid-70’s F or warmer). Soil oxygen is depleted within about 48 hours of saturation and we know soil oxygen is important for the root system and all the plant’s life functions. So we’ll have to wait and see what happens.
Have also had a few calls regarding rye cover crops. When rye is killed out and decomposing, it releases toxins that can affect the germination of other cereal crops such as corn if it’s going to be planted into that rye cover crop. Thus we recommend at UNL that the producer kill the rye and then wait at least two weeks to prevent any major damage to the crop. I realize at this point with the rains to get in and kill that crop on top of waiting an additional two weeks, we’re getting close to the end of the month and will most likely be looking at reduced yields…and depending on maturity, you may need to consider different seed if you end up having to plant in June. If you have specific questions about this, please let me know and we can talk through some situations.
Stripe rust and powdery mildew have been obliterating mid-lower canopies of many wheat fields. I’ve received several calls on why wheat canopies are yellow-that’s the main reason but other factors such as the dry spell prior to these rains and/or deficiencies in nitrogen/sulfur or some viruses may also have been factors. Wheat in Nuckolls County last week was beginning to flower. Fungicides such as Prosaro, Folicur, or Proline are labeled for up to 50% flowering and cannot be applied after that. Remember the wheat head begins pollination in the middle-so if you’re seeing little yellow anthers at the top or bottom of that head, you’re towards the end of flowering. All those products have a 30 day pre-harvest interval-which has been the other main question-are we going to be harvesting in a month? I do believe we’ll be harvesting a month earlier than normal just because pretty much everything in wheat development is about a month ahead of schedule. I still feel the 30 day window for the fungicide application is worth it with the large amount of disease pressure we’ve seen. Wheat in Clay Co. and north still may have time for a fungicide application; those products mentioned above will help prevent Fusarium Head Blight (scab) as well as kill the fungi causing disease already present on your leaves. A list of all fungicide products, pre-harvest restrictions, and rates can be found here. Also check out my previous blog post with video on scouting for wheat diseases.
The other major disease appearing in wheat is barley yellow dwarf virus. This is a virus vectored by bird cherry oat aphids which we were seeing earlier this year. Unfortunately, this disease causes the flag leaves to turn bright yellow-purple causing yield loss (at least 80% of the yield comes from the flag leaf) as there’s nothing you can do once the virus manifests itself in those leaves. If you have a large incidence of barley yellow dwarf in your fields, you may wish to reconsider spraying a fungicide as the fungicide won’t kill the virus; however, it will help kill the fungi on the remainder of your leaves and potentially help protect some yield from the two leaves below the flag leaf.
They’re everywhere! Finding ways to get inside homes, lining the sides of houses, and swarming around lights at night. The number one question last week from farmers, crop consultants, and home-owners was “what are the millers/moths flying around?” They are mostly army cutworm moths that are on their annual migration from the south. Usually they arrive in our area in May but everything this year seems to be about 2.5 weeks ahead of schedule. They can stay in the area for 2-3 weeks or as long as 6 weeks if cool, wet conditions occur. Hot, dry conditions will move them out of the area. While a nuisance, they are mostly a pest in wheat and alfalfa-so farmers with these crops need to be scouting. In alfalfa, we’re close enough to first cutting that I don’t anticipate needing an insecticide for it, but I do encourage you to watch regrowth for the second cutting as the larvae may be feeding by then. Since we’re not cutting wheat, be scouting it to ensure larvae aren’t causing significant damage. We may need to consider an insecticide treatment with fungicides this year in wheat when trying to protect the flag leaf. Some have been concerned that these are black cutworm moths and have been applying ½ rates of insecticides during corn planting. We don’t recommend this at UNL as these are army cutworm moths and don’t anticipate a problem to our corn crop from them. We recommend scouting once corn has emerged as it’s a better integrated pest management (IPM) strategy and saves you money not to needlessly apply insecticides on broad acres when black cutworm problems are typically patchy within certain fields every year.
For homeowners, if you have shrubs or bushy plants around your homes, you may notice more of these millers as they reside in these types of areas. There’s no chemical for controlling them. Some things you can do are change your outside lights from white to yellow and keep outside lighting to a minimum. Also caulking can help. Ultimately, they’re a short term nuisance and more information about their life cycle and management from Dr. Bob Wright, UNL Extension Entomologist, can be found at our UNL CropWatch Web site.