Late Season Hail Damage Resources
A special thank you to the Nebraska Extension team who shared during today’s hail damage meetings! They were well attended with nearly 120 participants between the two locations. Hopefully the information was of help as you talk with your crop insurance adjuster and know what to expect going forward. Below are the resources we provided and additional items including presentations that were discussed. Contact information for the speakers is listed at the bottom of this post. We will continue to add resources to this page if you’d like to check back. Thanks!
- Dr. Justin McMechan’s Presentation: Corn and Soybeans Hail Panel 2018
- Jenny Rees Presentation: StormDamageDiscussion-8-13-18
- Steve Melvin Irrigation Information: Irrigation Scheduling for Hail Damaged Crops
General Hail Damage Resources:
UNL Extension Hail Know web site: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/hailknow
Hail Damage Videos:
- Hail Damage Evaluation and Management in Soybeans
- Hail Damage Evaluation and Management in Corn
- Weed Management Considerations Following Hail
UNL CropWatch Storm Damage: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/storm-damage-response-information
Corn at Beginning Dent needs 5” of water; ¼ milk = 3.75”; ½ milk (Full dent) = 2.25”; ¾ milk = 1”. Soybean at beginning seed (R5) = 6.5”; R6 full seed = 3.5”; leaves beginning to yellow = 1.9”.
NebGuide Predicting the Last Irrigation of the Season. Use the last page to walk through an example of how much water you may need to finish out the crop for crop insurance purposes. Also realize that severely hail damaged plants may progress more rapidly than the number of days for each growth stage listed in this NebGuide and that damaged plants may not use as much water as mentioned here. http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g1871.pdf
Crop coefficients chart by growth stage: https://nawmn.unl.edu/GrowthStageData
If anyone is taking hail damaged corn for silage, Dr. Mary Drewnoski is interested in samples prior to and after ensiling and is willing to help with sample analysis cost. Even if silage has already occurred, we’d be interested in samples after ensiling. Please contact her if interested (contact info. at bottom of this post).
The three links below are the ones that answer specific questions. The first article answers a few questions regarding forage considerations for hail-damaged corn and soybean. The over-riding decisions will be based on planting date. Sudangrass or sorghum x sudangrass crosses and millets are still appropriate until August 15, although seed supplies of these are dwindling. After that, we are looking at oats/turnips. Drilling these directly into the stubble is the best option for planting. There was also a great discussion regarding earlage and we need to create an article regarding that topic.
This article addresses nitrate concerns when grazing forage cover crops: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/reducing-nitrate-concerns-when-grazing-forage-cover-crops
This article addresses cover crops:
|COVER CROP||USE/GOAL||WHEN TO PLANT||HOW TO SEED||RATE
|OATS||Weed Management||By Sept. 1||Drill best. Can fly on.||30-40 lbs||*|
|OATS/RYE MIX||Weed Management||By Sept. 1||Drill best. Can fly on.||30 lbs each||*|
|OATS||Forage||By Sept. 1||Drill best. Can fly on.||80-90 lbs||*|
|OAT/RYE MIX||Forage||By Sept. 1||Drill best. Can fly on.||30-40 lbs of rye and 50-60 lbs oats||*|
|BRASSICAS (TURNIP, COLLARD, RAPESEED)-NOT OILSEED RADISHES||Cover ground, forage, nitrogen uptake||By Sept. 1||Fly on for quicker establishment.||5-6 lbs||—|
|RYE||Weed management, cover ground, forage, nitrogen uptake||After Sept. 1||Drill best. Can fly on.||50-60 lbs||*|
|*If adding a brassica to any of these small grain options, only 2 lb/ac is needed. Rapeseed isn’t as well known, but is an inexpensive and good option for consideration.|
Other Forage Considerations
- Earlage: For fields where the ear is now the top-most plant portion, silage is not a good option, but earlage can be. This resource from North Dakota State University, Harvesting, Storing and Feeding corn as Earlage, provides good information on earlage.
- Grazing: Whenever possible, attempting to harvest the corn first would be best. It’s not a good idea to graze the corn with ears on the stalks. A better option would be to harvest the corn and graze afterward, following considerations that we used for the downed corn situation in 2017. See Down Corn: Problem or Opportunity for Cattle Producers?
- Silage: The following are good silage resources — Silage Considerations (UNL BeefWatch) and videos from the Silage for Beef Cattle Conference.
Grain Quality/Mold/Mycotoxins/Grain Storage:
Diplodia ear rot is perhaps the most common with these types of storms. Good news, Diplodia does not have a mycotoxin associated with it. Bad news is this fungus explodes on an ear creating light-weight ears and explodes in grain bins.
It will be wise to assess which fields/portions of fields are affected the worst with mold. Consider not storing any of that grain as it will be difficult to manage and keep from getting worse in storage. You will also need to assess which fields have increased risk of stalk rot by using the pinch test (Use your thumb and first finger to pinch the stalk internode above the soil line. If it easily crushes, the plant has stalk rot). Consider harvesting those portions of fields or fields most affected by stalk rot first.
Ear Rot Diseases and Grain Molds: http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/ec1901.pdf
Stalk Rot Diseases: http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/ec1868.pdf
Sprouting of Corn Kernels: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/sprouting-corn-kernels-hail-damaged-ears
Tips for Testing Storm Damaged Corn (Veterinarian perspective): https://cropwatch.unl.edu/storm-damaged-corn-tips-testing-and-using
Grain Storage Resources: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/grain-storage-management
Crop Insurance Questions:
Every field situation may vary. If you have hail insurance, the insurance adjuster should evaluate ear damage in addition to percent defoliation and stalk breakage.
Ask your insurance adjuster how they assess grain quality damage.
- What are their rules?
- Do they go by the COOP results for mold/mycotoxin/dockage?
- Do they require the insurance agent to come out and take a sample for mold/mycotoxin?
- Do they require you to call them before you put grain into your bin? (This is especially the case if aflatoxin may be of concern. We don’t anticipate that being a problem with this storm damage. However, if they require a sample for mold/mycotoxin in general, they may ask you to call them to take a sample before the grain gets put into a bin).
- If you do have presence of mold and/or mycotoxin, it’s best to have it documented before the grain goes into the bin. If the grain gets out of quality and the mold and/or mycotoxin increases in your bin by spring, if it wasn’t documented at harvest, you may not get compensated.
Mary Drewnoski Daren Redfearn Justin McMechan
Extension Beef Nutritionist Extension Forage Specialist Extension Crop Systems
402-472-6289 (402) 472-2662 (402) 624-8041
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