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JenREES 7-19-20

Crop Update: The smell of pollen is in the air! Did you know each tassel contains around 6000 pollen-producing anthers? Two good articles from Dr. Bob Nielsen, Purdue University at https://go.unl.edu/x5tv.

How does heat impact pollination? Dr. Tom Hoegemeyer, former UNL Professor of Practice, shared that high humidity, without a drop in humidity during the day, can delay pollination or prevent pollen from leaving anther sacs. While heat over 95°F depresses pollen production, one day of 95-98°F has no or little yield impact when soil moisture is sufficient. After 4 consecutive days, there can be a 1% loss in yield for each day above that temperature. Greater yield loss occurs after the fifth or sixth day. Thankfully we’re not in a high heat pattern during this critical time of pollination!

My concerns regarding pollination: bent ear leaves covering silks in wind-damaged fields. Seeing a great deal of this. Also seeing silks continuing to elongate and grow through broken mid-ribs to increase exposure to pollen. Will continue to observe impacts.

Preliminary storm prediction center weather data showed a total of 93 wind, 11 hail, and 13 tornado damage reports on July 8th in Nebraska. Univ. of Wisconsin found lodged plants had yield reductions of 2-6% (V10-12 stage), 5-15% (V13-15 stage), and 12-31% (V17 and after stages). For greensnapped plants (below ear), Iowa State found in the worst case situation, yield reduction may range up to a 1:1 percent broken:yield loss. It’s possible these losses will be as low as 1:0.73 or even 1:0.50. We have an article in this week’s CropWatch (https://go.unl.edu/cwy2) with more detailed information. Recovery pics also at https://jenreesources.com.

Southern Rust was confirmed at low incidence and severity in Fillmore, Nuckolls, and Jefferson county fields this past week (probable for Thayer). Received questions on fungicide applications. In conversations, it seems like there’s fear of making the wrong decision and ultimately pressure to apply them. I realize economically it’s easier to justify adding a fungicide with insecticide when insect thresholds are met to save application costs. Most fungicide studies focus on VT applications; however, yield increases with automatic VT applications aren’t consistently proven in Nebraska.

In fact, in 2008-2009, a UNL fungicide timing trial was conducted near Clay Center on 2 hybrids (GLS ratings ‘fair’ and ‘(very) good’) with a high clearance applicator. Timing over the two years included: Tassel, Milk, Dough, 25%, 33%, 50%, and 100% Dent comparing the fungicides Headline, Headline AMP, Quilt and Stratego YLD.

  • 2008: No yield difference on GLS hybrids rated ‘good’ at any of the timings (Tassel, Milk, 33% and 100% Dent) nor the check when Headline or Stratego YLD were applied. For the ‘fair’ hybrid, no yield difference for any application timing nor the check for the April 30th planting except for Headline applied at milk stage (increased yield). Low gray leaf spot pressure.
  • 2009: No yield difference on GLS hybrids rated ‘very good’ or ‘fair’ nor the check on any timings (Tassel, Milk, and Dough) using Headline, Headline AMP, or Quilt. Moderate gray leaf spot disease pressure.

Thus I’ve recommended waiting till disease pressure warrants the application (have personally recommended apps as late as hard dough in previous years). Hybrids vary in disease susceptibility (thus response to fungicide application). The main ‘plant health’ benefit observed in Nebraska when disease pressure was low (ex. 2012) was stalk strength and that may be something to consider again in this lower disease year. Regarding any improved water use efficiency for drought-stressed plants, the peer-reviewed research published on this was in 2007. The researchers found slightly increased efficiency in well-watered plants, but it was reduced in water-stressed plants. They suggested fungicide use in water-stressed plants could potentially negatively influence water use efficiency and photosynthesis.


 

Same area of a York County Field taken morning of July 9th (left photo) and morning of July 13th (right photo). Grateful to see how plants are re-orienting themselves in many impacted lodged fields!

Leaned plants trying to upright themselves

Plants re-orienting themselves by ‘pushing’ and establishing more brace roots on the leeward (leaned side) helping roots reconnect with soil on the windward side. Notice the additional brace root development within the circled area of this photo.

Plants reorienting themselves at each node at various angles and bends

Plants reorienting themselves at each node at various angles and bends. Nodes become thicker to aid in reorientation.

Splitting open of thickened node

Splitting open of thickened node. Additional cell division and/or elongation occurring at these nodes appears to help ‘push’ the stalk upward (geotrophic response).

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Consistently seeing bent ear leaves covering silks in wind-damaged fields. Will have to watch any impacts to pollination.

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Also seeing how either the ear or silks are working their way through tears in leaves or silks elongating to the side of the plant to try to pollinate.

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Severely greensnapped field of later-planted corn.

Seeing some new growth on some greensnapped plants. Dissecting the growth revealed baby corn ears (they won’t amount to anything). Just shows the resiliency in plants regarding how they’re created to survive and reproduce. I never cease to be amazed by their Creator!

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Seeing this very minor. Ear trapped within thickened husk/stalk tissue so forcing itself through side of plant. Silks visible first.

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Opened this one to see curving of ear and some potential pinching occurring where ear was trapped above where it was forcing out of husk. Will be interesting to see any pollination and ear development impacts on plants like this.

JenREES 7-15-18

Crop Updates: A great deal of timely information was provided in this week’s CropWatch at http://cropwatch.unl.edu including information about high heat and pollination, applying fertilizer during pollination, western bean cutworm scouting, forecasted yields, etc. Please check it out!

Several called me asking about applying fertilizer during pollination. I shared that while

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I wasn’t aware of research, I personally was concerned about anything potentially interfering with pollination and that I do recommend 30 lbs of N at brown silk if needed or if you were originally planning split nitrogen apps. This is based on research from Purdue sharing today’s hybrids use 30-40% of their total Nitrogen from flowering through maturity. After discussing with Dr. Tom Hoegemeyer, Adjunct UNL Professor of Practice, he offered the following insights: “Pollination mostly occurs between 8:30 a.m. and Noon. Thus, as a precaution, I would not run a pivot on pollinating corn from 6 a.m. to Noon. When the temperature is 90°F to 95°F, the pollen is killed by heat and is seldom viable past 2 p.m. That leaves lots of time to run pivots, apply N, etc. when it won’t harm pollination. Silks tend to be viable for three or four days at these temperatures, so if a plant isn’t pollinated one day, generally the next day will work just fine. (If nitrogen is needed), I’d recommend that nitrogen go on as soon as practical. Corn nitrogen use is very high during the pre-tassel growth phase and again at kernel growth, from one to three weeks post pollination. About seven to ten days post pollination (before brown silk) lower N will start causing kernel abortion and serious yield loss in corn.” The UNL recommendation for fertigation is to use 30 lb of N with 0.25″ of water or 50-60 lb of N with 0.50″ of water.

Last week also brought questions regarding thresholds and difficulty in finding Western Bean Cutworm egg masses with moth flights at their peak. You can view light trap data from UNL’s South Central Ag Lab thanks to Terry Devries at: https://scal.unl.edu/ltr2018.pdf. There’s also a great article in this week’s CropWatch on how to scout for them, insecticide options, and additional recommendations. Thresholds for western bean cutworm are 5-8% of corn plants in the field containing egg masses or larvae. Egg masses can be difficult to find during pollination with pollen hiding them. ‘Typically’ egg masses are found in the top third of the plant on the upper sides of leaves and near midribs or leaf axils. However, with higher heat, I tend to find them closer to the ears and have even seen masses laid on the ear husks and on the backsides of leaves (not common). While larvae are generally known to move up the plant to feed at the tassels, I’ve seen high heat force larvae into ears earlier. It typically takes 5-7 days for larvae to hatch and the egg masses turn purple just prior to hatching. A number of insecticide options are available for both aerial application and via chemigation; these products are listed in the CropWatch article.

With insecticide applications occurring in corn for both western bean cutworm and also corn rootworm beetles, many have also called or talked with me about the recommendation of fungicide applications. Right now, I haven’t found gray leaf spot above 3 leaves below the ear leaf in several counties. There’s been some mis-diagnosing bacterial leaf streak as gray leaf spot. Southern rust was just confirmed in a Kansas county this week, but we still have yet to confirm it in Nebraska. Even the longest residual products won’t get us through August if a fungicide application occurs now. I can appreciate that economics are tight so the thought is to save an additional application cost by applying a fungicide now with the insecticide. And, I can appreciate economics are tight regarding why apply a fungicide right now when disease pressure doesn’t warrant it? Perhaps, at least those of you with the ability to chemigate could consider waiting till disease pressure warrants it for your field, if it does. Always in the back of my mind is the need for late-season protection with southern rust eventually showing up and gray leaf spot often worse then.

My perspective is from a resistance management and research-based one. We have 5 total modes of action for fungicides with 2 of them being in nearly every fungicide product we use in corn, soybean, and wheat because they work against foliar fungal pathogens. At some point, our pathogens will also adapt, as we’ve seen our weeds and insects do…it would be like losing our ability to control gray leaf spot and southern rust similar to palmer amaranth on the weed side. In Nebraska, Dr. Tamra Jackson-Ziem’s research has not shown an automatic yield increase to fungicide application in the absence of disease. And, it has also not shown an automatic yield increase when applied at tassel. In a high heat and low disease year like 2012, there were no statistical yield differences with fungicide application vs. the untreated control. Even in years with some disease pressure such as 2008-2010, she found no statistical yield differences between when various products were applied from Tassel through Dough stages. In high disease years, her research shows the benefit of fungicide application for reduced disease pressure and increased stalk strength. Fungicides are great tools to help us with disease pressure and stalk strength. Just would encourage all of us to consider when we really need to apply them and to understand that research in Nebraska does not automatically show increased yields with the use of them or with the timing of Tassel/Silking vs. later in the year. Also, hybrids may vary in their response due to disease susceptibility and other factors. Not all her data is listed at this site, but you can view it for yourself at: https://go.unl.edu/ni3y.

Bagworms: I’ve been seeing shelter belts and various trees turning brown from heavy

18 bagworm on Meridian Aborvitae K Feehan 7 9 18

Severe bagworm infestation on arborvitae. Photo via Kelly Feehan, Extension Educator Platte Co.

bagworm infestations. Please be checking your trees if you are noticing them turning brown. Additional information can be found at: https://go.unl.edu/rgju.

Southern Rust

Several of us had been watching the USDA IPM Pipe Map for weeks.  It wasn’t showing southern rust moving and only Georgia2013-07-30 09.31.26 was really lit up.  Yet, I had heard reports in Texas and Oklahoma at one point.  Spots were evident on corn leaves when backlit-so they were bound to develop into something.

That something has showed itself to be southern rust last week as it was confirmed in 11 Nebraska Counties:  Kearney, Adams, Clay, Nuckolls, Thayer, Fillmore, Gage, Platte, Polk, York, and Boone.  I’d like to thank all the crop consultants and ag industry professionals for sharing information on what we all were seeing and for submitting samples.  2013-07-30 11.44.36

So the common question was, why didn’t the map show anything south of us?  Federal funding was no longer available for this site and scouting efforts associated with it.  Many Extension Plant Pathologists weren’t aware that the site was even still online and were sharing information via other means instead.  The map for Nebraska will continue to be updated, but for surrounding states, it is advised to consult with your local Extension Plant Pathologist.

Differentiating Rusts:

When differentiating between southern rust vs. common rust, there are several criteria to consider and this NebGuide is a great resource.  Typically common rust will have brick-red pustules randomly scattered on the upper and lower leaf surfaces that are larger in size.

For southern rust, we’re seeing very small, raised, tan-orange pustules on the upper leaf surface of leaves in localized areas on mid-upper leaves.  These pustules are tightly clustered on the leaves. Fungal spores of Puccinia sorghi, the pathogen causing common rust. However, color and size are relative as sometimes the two diseases can look alike.

Microscopic observation is the best way to differentiate the two diseases.  Fungal spores from Puccinia sorghi causing common rust will be near perfect round circles whereas fungal spores from Puccinia polysora will be oblong in shape.

Disease Progression:

With the cooler weather last week, we were unsure how the disease would progress. Southern rust likes sustained temperatures in the 80’s-90’sF with humidity and leaf wetness.  So we encourage scouting for it.

We saw how southern rust can be devastating to fields in the past regarding removing photosynthetic tissue leading to cannabalization of the stalk.  In determining a fungicide application, consider Physoderma brown spotdisease pressure in your field, stage of growth, pre-harvest intervals, and length of time for fungicide residual in addition to economics.

Look-A-likes:

Other plant samples brought in contained diseases such as physoderma brown spot (which isn’t a significant yield limiting disease of corn).  Because the spores of this fungus move via water (it’s closely related to oomycetes), numerous lesions can appear on leaves in bands or areas where water collects.  While the lesions may look like early southern rust, there will be no pustules present and often the purple colored lesions will also be observed in the midrib, leaf sheath, stalk, and outer husks.

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